Implementation Model of Empowerment of Custom in Maluku in the scope of Management Marine Space of Archipelago State towards Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is argued to be closely related to the existence of custom. The term sustainability has evolved from the term of harvesting regimes for specific stocks of natural resources that could be sustained over time to challenges of balancing the economic and ecological perspectives of development and acknowledging our collective responsibility of stewardship to future generations . Additionally, the centre of attention of sustainable development itself is not solely on economic and environmental aspect, but also on social and cultural aspect. The latter premise is also supported by The Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity, in which stated that cultural diversity is as considered as the common heritage of humanity, as well as of important factors in development.
Custom has been acted as of important means on maintaining cultural values sustainability. According to Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, custom is defined as a usage or practice common to many or to a particular place or class or habitual with an individual, custom regulates the implementation of cultural values, including the existing knowledge, belief and behaviour, through either the written or unwritten law applied to past, present and future generation. The performance of custom thus will allow the cultural values to be transferred to succeeding generation, which, in return, will provide a means to support the achievement of sustainable development especially from the point of view of cultural preservation.
Unfortunately, cultural preservation has not yet acknowledged as an integrated part of development in Indonesia. There are 227,337 isolated indigenous households in 18 provinces in Indonesia that are still upholding to the local custom. The previously mentioned information, however, raises a paradox that, on one hand, the custom is still practiced in Indonesia but, on the other hand, the amount of indigenous household has been decreasing. Moreover, custom is not yet legally protected, in which lead to deterioration of custom, either intentionally or unintentionally.
As an archipelago state, contribution of coastal and marine sector to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Indonesia is only as low as 20.06% of Indonesia’s GDP or USD 18.9 trillion on 1998 . With its marine territory that covers 3.1 million km2, 62% of total Indonesia’s territory, and more than 81.000 km of coastline, the contribution of coastal and marine sector is considerably low, especially if it is compared to some other countries with less marine territory and coastline. The development of special conception on management of marine areas of Indonesia as an archipelago state thus is necessarily to be done.
For identifying the characteristics of customary marine cadastre in Maluku Island, four qualitative research methods have been utilised, which are ethnography, content analysis, secondary data analysis and Focus Group Discussion. Ethnography was applied as a means of extracting information regarding, in particular, the customary marine cadastre and, in general, the spatial management of waters, from gestures, displays, symbols, songs, saying etc. This method was implemented by surveys and interviews.
Content analysis was employed for analysing the policy and regulation regarding marine cadastre in order to gain the insight on the recent course of development on particularly marine cadastre and generally spatial management of archipelagic area. The output of this method will be utilised as the framework on identification of customary marine cadastre in Maluku Islands.
Even though publication in relation to customary management of archipelago state is considerably rare, some basics on it have been published. Thus, the secondary analysis method was valuable for setting up a solid basis for this research and its further improvement.
Focus Group research method was mainly applied on problem structuring, as well as on data collection phase. There were two types of Focus Group Discussion. The centre of attention of the first Focus Group was the development of conception on administration of marine space unit towards sustainable development of archipelago extent. The stakeholders of this Focus Group comprised of experts on fields such as land and marine space unit tenureship, spatial planning and regional economic development planning. Moreover, as the second Focus Group was mainly utilised for collecting information from different stakeholders for the purpose of providing recommendation on future policy of management of marine space unit, which will be based on the policy alternative provided by the research phase on predicting preferred future policy of it, the stakeholders of this Focus Group were those who are responsible on the making, implementing and monitoring the policy on fields related to management of marine space unit in the Province of Maluku in both formal and customary government institution.
During the performance of the research, four study areas were chosen. Those study areas are Negeri Tulehu, located at eastern part of Ambon Island; Negeri Latuhalat, located at the south-western part of territory of Municipality of Ambon; Negeri Haruku, located at Haruku Island; and Negeri Paperu, located at south-east of Saparua Island. Those four study areas were chosen do to the existence of customary government and some special cases.
All four study areas suggest that customary governance is of important means on sustainable management of marine space unit in archipelago state. On one hand, the sasi system has been able to maintain the carrying capacity of marine environment, while, on the other hand, the sasi system has a direct link to enhancement of people’s welfare. Moreover, the implementation of custom itself is viewed as the main lead for preserving socio-cultural values and people’s identity.
Furthermore, through this research, it is revealed that local wisdom has an important role on implementation of decentralisation of governance in Indonesia. In the case of Province of Maluku, the mandates on management of terrestrial and marine space unit have been relegated to government of negeri by means of provincial and municipal regulation in the Province of Maluku, Municipality of Ambon and Regency of Southeast Maluku. This mandate relegation has been acted as the most important feature on achieving successful implementation of decentralisation in Province of Maluku. By formalising customary government in above mentioned areas, the local governance has consequently been based on local wisdom in area in question. Local wisdom has also provided the means for managing the special character of area in question. Accordingly, local wisdom has been able to create balance between preservation of the environmental and socio-cultural value and enhancement of people’s welfare. The model of Province of Maluku on empowerment of customary government is proposed to be the initial model on implementation of decentralisation approach of governance in Indonesia, not only on management of marine space unit but also for all governmental sectors.
HEAD OF RESEARCH TEAM: Ir. Kurdinanto Sarah, MSP
TEAM MEMBERS: Dr. Ir. Eka Djunarsjah, MT, Dr. Andri Hernandi, ST, MT, Rizqi Abdulharis, ST, M.Sc, Yan Shofian Syarief, S.Si, M.Si, Alfita Puspa Handayani, ST, MT
OFFICIAL ADDRESS: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; KK Surveying dan Kadaster, Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian, ITB, Gedung Labtek IX-C, Lantai 1, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132; KK Sains dan Rekayasa Hidrografi, Fakultas Ilmu dan Teknologi Kebumian, ITB, Gedung Labtek IX-C, Lantai 1, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132