Study of Coastal Vulnerability Zone Based on Biophysics-Social-Economic Condition at North Java Coast Due to Climate Change (Studi Zonasi Kerentanan Kawasan Pesisir Berbasis Kondisi Biofisik-Sosial-Ekonomi Di Pantai Utara Jawa Akibat Perubahan Iklim)
Coastal regions and small islands are dynamic environments that are rich in natural living and non-living water resources. Intensity level coastal resource utilization rate may lead to some positive and negative impacts. The negative impact will result in the degradation of coastal environmental quality. Environmental degradation in coastal regions and small islands can come from outside and from within the coastal area itself. The main cause of which is the use of coastal space that had served the area with various activities such as fisheries, tourism, industry, mining, and transportation.
An estimated 21% of the world’s population live in areas 30 km from the coastline. Growth of population living in coastal faster than the average world population growth include increased due to urbanization and the development of rapid coastal cities. At the same time, sea level rise caused by global warming or climate change also tends to increase the expected accelerating anthropogenic global warming. Research conducted in Indonesia indicate a trend of increasing water level in the North Jakarta coast of 0:57 cm/year based on the mean sea level (MSL) pasut the period 1925-2002 (Hadi et al, 2006; Radjawane et al, 2006). Sutisna et al (2002) indicate a sea level rise in Tanjung Priok, Semarang and Surabaya about 8 mm/year over a period of 18 years (1984-2002). Another impact of global warming on the coast is the increased intensity and frequency of tidal wave/extreme that can cause harm even brought the victim. Understanding of the direct impact of the biophysical aspects and impacts, especially in the field of advanced socio-economic communities due to sea level rise needs to be studied further.
This research tries to offer a more comprehensive approach to the development and management of coastal areas of anticipative, sustainable and continue. Previous of this classification is generally based on the coastal landscape and beaches cover much of biota or administrative zoning. An integrated study of the classification/zoning area based on the level of vulnerability of coastal areas based on biophysical conditions and dynamic coastal economy and social composition of coastal communities is needed. North Coast Region (Pantura) of Java is the object of this research is an area with consideration to population and development levels are high which has a strategic role as a transportation artery sea and land. Pantura a sloping beach configuration so vulnerable to sea level rise and high tide. Coastal cities that are selected based on its economic growth rate which represents the city of Jakarta coastal megacity, Semarang represents the medium coastal town and Pekalongan represent smaller one.
Outlines the methods used include statistical data processing and digital image processing as well as methods for decision making and interpretation of results. Spatial data will be displayed in the form of DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Conducted field visits to three locations, namely Jakarta, Semarang and Pekalongan for visits and interviews with coastal communities that will be conducted in September 2009. Data sea level rise obtained from the literature and secondary data. Biophysical indicators such as data on geology, morphology, increases in relative sea level, erosion and accretion, tidal, wave height and maximum water elevation obtained from the literature, secondary data and maps are available. Determination of biophysical coastal vulnerability index (CVI = Coastal Vulnerabilty Index) by using the formulation developed by Gornitz (1997) and has been applied in the coastal United States. Determination zoning index based socio-economic parameters using the formulation Socio-Economic Vulnerability Index (SoVI) by Szlafsztein (2005). Both indices are averaged to get the price of Coastal Vulnerability Index Total. Superficial zoning based on the vulnerability index-overlay with land-use maps and DEM.
Model DIVA (Dynamic Interactive Vulnerability Assessment), developed from the project DINAS-COAST, Dynamic and Interactive Assessment of National, Regional and Global Vulnerability of Coastal Zones to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise, (Klein and Nicholl, 2001) is used to supplement the results above. The model used for dynamic and interactive study of coastal vulnerability to climate change scenarios and sea level rise.
HEAD OF RESEARCH TEAM: Ivonne M. Radjawane, Ph.D.
TEAM MEMBERS: Dr. Utomo Sarjono Putro, Deddy P. Koesrindartoto, Ph.D., Abdul Muhari, MT., Dadang Muchtar, Manahan P. Siallagan, Widia Yanti, Didik Hartadi, Wimar R. Lusano
OFFICIAL ADDRESS: Oceanography Study Program, Fac. of Earth Sciences and Technology, Labtek XI, lt. 1, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung