The Development of Fruiting Body Induction Technology Using Magnetic Field
Oyster mushroom plays important role in human life. Nowdays, oyster mushroom has becoming the second largest produced mushroom in the world after champignon. However, the productivity of oyster mushroom in Indonesia relatively yet too low compared to the productivity in other countries. For example, (Martinez-Carrera, 1989) reported that the use of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare), has given a biological efficiency of Oyster mushroom up to 96%. In India, it was reported that sesame stem substrate gave yied on Pleurotus sajor-caju production with biological efficiency of 60% (Pani et al., 1997). Meanshile, the average productivity (biological effeciency ratio) of oyster mushroom in Indonesia around 40-50%. This needs to be improved whether with substrate optimization or other technologcal approach. This research was trying to evaluate the potency of magnetic field to induce the production of Oyster mushroom fruiting body as well as to fasten the flushing time (initial formation) of fruiting body. This idea based on our previous results, that magnetic field was able to promote the mycelial growth of fungus at the dose of 1,7 mT (Anggoro et al., 2000). In this current experiment, five doses (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 mT) of magnetic field were exposed to mycelial culture on PDA and sawdust based substrater to find out whether the magnetic field can influence the growth rate, starting time formation of fruiting body and the total yield (production) of fruiting body of the mushroom. Magnetic field incubator was designed based on the following condition : Each unit of incubator consisted of copper based wire (Φ0.7mm) solenoids which was arranged in a hardwood cylinder (15cm high, diameter 30 cm). Arect Current (AC) electricity (freq 50 Hz) input was controlled with a step-down transformer system equipped with variable resistor, resulting maximum current power of 3A. Each incubator can be adjusted for the magnetic field as required. One incubator was fit with 7 mushroom baglogs (capacity 1Kg substrate). The humidity of room condition was maintained above 80% using fine water spray system while temperature was let as ambient condition. After exposing the mycelium with five doses of magnetic field, the following results were achieved as follows. Mycelial growth rate at all doses of maganetic field tend to be the same as control except at the dose of 2mT which is slightly to be inhibited. The highest fruiting body yield was achieved at the treatment of magnetic field dose of 0.4-0.8 mT. Anti cholesterol compound (Lovastatin) concentration was detected the highest at the magnetic field treatment of 0,8mT. Protein content in fungal biomass of all treated doses tend to vary in term of quantity instead of quality suggesting there is no genetic change (mutation) occur as a result of magnetic field. Inconclusion, magnetic field (dose 0,4-0,8mT) can be used to increase the production of fruiting body as well as to fasten the formation of fruting body of P. ostreatus. Magnetic field dose 0,8mT can be used to increase the production of lovastatin by P. ostreatus.
HEAD OF RESEARCH TEAM: DR. I Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha
TEAM MEMBERS: DR. Bambang Anggoro
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